The incorporation of microcapsules containing lubricant oil into epoxy composites leads to materials with ultra-low friction and wear performance. During sliding wear tests, the capsules are damaged by the asperities of the counterface, releasing the oil to the contact area. The lubrication effect of the released oil and the entrapment of wear particles in the cavities left by the ruptured capsules leads to a significant reduction of both the frictional coefficient and the specific wear rate. The approach provides the merits of fluid lubrication but excludes the drawbacks of external lubrication. A minute amount of lubricant oil is sufficient to improve the tribological properties significantly.