Consumer behavior is discussed as a biobehavioral phenomenon and considered in light of evolutionary theory. Current consumer choices are viewed as shaped in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), and the expression of these evolved behavioral repertoires in modern consumer settings such as malls, grocery stores, and on-line shopping are analyzed in terms of evolutionary psychology. A variety of empirical studies confirm that consumption conforms to predictions made from sexual strategies, reciprocal altruism, foraging, and matching theories. Further explorations of consumer behavior and marketing practices from an evolutionary psychology perspective are a promising area for future research. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.