This study examines the influence of various cultural and psychological factors on the green purchase behavior of Chinese consumers. To this end, a conceptual model has been proposed and subjected to empirical verification with the use of a survey. The survey results obtained in two major Chinese cities provide reasonable support for the validity of the proposed model. Specifically, the findings from the structural-equation modeling confirm the influence of the subjects' man–nature orientation, degree of collectivism, ecological affect, and marginally, ecological knowledge, on their attitudes toward green purchases. Their attitudes toward green purchases, in turn, are also seen to affect their green purchase behavior via the mediator of green purchase intention. Although the present findings provide a better understanding of the process and significant antecedents of green purchasing, they also highlight two areas for more thorough investigation. These are the exact role of ecological knowledge in Chinese consumers' green purchasing process and the underlying factors that account for their low level of green purchase. This study also discusses how the present findings may help the Chinese government and green marketers to fine-tune their environmental programs. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.