Birds of a feather flock together…definition, role and measure of congruence: An application to sponsorship



Congruence has long been discussed in the context of brand extensions and advertising, particularly in terms of celebrity endorsement. Although just as relevant for sponsorship, the examination of this concept in that context is more recent, despite evidence that it plays a significant role in determining the effectiveness of this particular communication technique. In this paper, the authors argue in favor of conceptualizing congruence as a bidimensional construct, consistent with previous research. A scale to capture this important construct is subsequently developed and validated in two separate countries. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.