Multi-method research on consumer–brand associations: Comparing free associations, storytelling, and collages


  • Oliver Koll,

    Corresponding author
    1. University of Innsbruck
    • Department of Strategic Management, Marketing, and Tourism, Innsbruck School of Management, University of Innsbruck, Universitätsstr. 15, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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  • Sylvia von Wallpach,

  • Maria Kreuzer


What consumers know and think consciously and unconsciously about a brand influences their attitudes and behaviors toward the brand and ultimately brand success. Therefore, keeping track of what consumers know is advisable. This article considers the value of using three approaches to assess brand knowledge: free association technique, storytelling, and collage-creation. Each method is suitable for tapping and reproducing different aspects of brand knowledge. The empirical study combines the three methods in an explorative setting to retrieve consumer brand knowledge regarding a major sports brand. The study compares knowledge that each method elicits and provides brand management with recommendations how to decide when to use each method and whether to employ one or more of these methods. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.