The growth and success of outdoor advertising is in large part due to the medium's ability to reach an increasingly elusive and mobile consumer. However, this success has come with a price. Public pressure and regulation have begun to eliminate or curtail many outdoor advertising locations, leading practitioners to question the effectiveness of the remaining outdoor advertising sites. Using associative learning techniques, these studies investigate what effect, if any, the environment in which outdoor advertising appears has on the attitudes, beliefs, and purchase intent of the advertised brand. The results of four experiments presented here suggest that the background environment does not impact advertising effectiveness, and practitioner concern of such may be unfounded. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.