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“It's not Easy Being Green”: Exploring Green Creeds, Green Deeds, and Internal Environmental Locus of Control


Correspondence regarding this article should be sent to: Dr. Mark Cleveland, Dancap Private Equity Professor in Consumer Behavior, DAN Management and Organizational Studies, University of Western Ontario, Social Science Centre, Room 3216, 1393 Western Road, London, Ontario N6A 5C2 Canada


The authors report on the development of a novel construct, internal environmental locus of control (INELOC), which captures consumers’ multifaceted attitudes pertaining to personal responsibility towards and ability to affect environmental outcomes. Using data gathered from a sample of consumers, the linkages between INELOC and a wide array of environmental behaviors were investigated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed four first-order dimensions (“green consumer,” “activism,” “advocate,” and “recycling attitudes”) embedded within a second-order INELOC factor. Structural equations modeling techniques showed that INELOC was a strong positive predictor of many behaviors. However, the nature of the attitude–behavior relationship varied considerably across behavioral contexts, implying that people do not consistently behave in a proenvironmental manner. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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