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Abstract

This paper reviews the sex-role self-concept measures developed before and after the 1970s used in marketing and consumer behavior research. The three most commonly used measures have been: CPI-Fe in studies before 1971; PAQ between 1976–1978; BSRI from 1978-present. Marketing studies have generally found that (1) biological sex is more influential than psychological sex traits, and (2) high masculinity is more influential than femininity traits. Socio-economic changes during the 1970s, such as women's participation in the labor force and the shift from a manufacturing to a service economy, suggest future directions for gender research in the marketing areas of product, price, distribution, and promotion.