Psychologists, consumer researchers, and marketers have long measured psychological traits related to gender, especially gender schema. This study assesses various psychological gender measures, including a new one, gender consciousness, in relation to a marketing variable of interest, fashion consciousness. Results indicate that biological sex is predominant when assessing the two sexes together. However, other variables emerge as important when within-sex differences are assessed: public self-consciousness for females and private gender consciousness (a new measure) for males. Marketing implications are discussed, primarily on the basis of these within-sex differences, since fashion marketers usually target separately one or the other sex in their campaigns.