We report the characterization of a sample of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mn = 3841, Mw/Mn = 1.01), and its derivative end-labeled with pyrenebutyrate groups, using high resolution MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A matrix of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-azo)benzoic acid containing a trace of either sodium chloride or potassium chloride was employed for laser desorption. Peaks due to the sodium or potassium cationized polymers were obtained, equally spaced at 44 mass units apart. For the pyrenebutyrate diester, the analysis shows that 80 ± 2% of the chains were doubly labeled, with the ramaining chains containing only a single pyrene group. Molecular weight determinations for both sets of samples were entirely consistent with size-exclusion chromatography measurements, but were obtained with greater accuracy and less ambiguity about the influence of the end groups on the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer.