A method for growing polymers directly from the surface of graphene oxide is demonstrated. The technique involves the covalent attachment of an initiator followed by the polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate, or butyl acrylate using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The resulting materials were characterized using a range of techniques and were found to significantly improve the solubility properties of graphene oxide. The surface-grown polymers were saponified from the surface and also characterized. Based on these results, the ATRP reactions were determined to proceed in a controlled manner and were found to leave the structure of the graphene oxide largely intact.