A facile route for the synthesis of luminescent and light refractive polymers is proposed. Silole-containing diyne and halogenated tetraphenylethene derivatives are synthesized and their coupling reactions furnish poly(arylene ethynylene)s with high molecular weights in high yields. All of the polymers are soluble and film-forming and possess a high thermal stability. They emit strong green lights when their solutions and nanoparticle suspensions are photoexcited. The polymers show high refractive indices with low chromatic dispersions. Their RI values can be modulated and their thin films can be crosslinked using UV irradiation, generating negative photoresist patterns.