Macromolecular Rapid Communications

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 2

Special Issue: Precisely Controlled Polymer Architectures via Molecular Engineering, Part 1

January 2014

Volume 35, Issue 2

Pages 113–259

Issue edited by: J.-F. Lutz, B. Sumerlin, K. Matyjaszewski

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2/2014 (page 113)

      Thanh Tam Trinh, Laurence Oswald, Delphine Chan-Seng and Jean-François Lutz

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201470006

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      Front Cover: A possible strategy to encrypt information at the molecular level is the creation of a binary code using two co-monomers defined as 0 and 1. As a proof of principle, sequence-defined oligo(triazole amide)s are synthesized via a stepwise solid-phase iterative process. In this approach, a reactive spacer, namely 1-amino-11-azido-3,6,9-trioxaundecane, is reacted with either 4-pentynoic acid (non-coding monomer) or 2-methyl-4-pentynoic acid (coding monomer). All possible information triads, 000, 001, 010, 100, 011, 101, 110, and 111 can be obtained using this approach. Further details can be found in the article by T. T. Trinh, L. Oswald, D. Chan-Seng, and J.-F. Lutz* on page 141.

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Communications
    1. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2/2014 (page 264)

      René Stangenberg, Irfan Saeed, Seah Ling Kuan, Martin Baumgarten, Tanja Weil, Markus Klapper and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201470009

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      Back Cover: Like an artist, a chemist can decorate different functionalities on shape-persistent materials. Positioning of polar and nonpolar patches on the periphery of semi-rigid polyphenylene dendrimers leads to remarkable solubility in solvents of different polarity such as toluene, methanol, and water. Precise surface structuring and the adjustment of size, shape, and lipophilicity/polarity resembles the delicate surface textures of proteins. Further details can be found in the article by R. Stangenberg, I. Saeed, S. L. Kuan, M. Baumgarten, T. Weil, M. Klapper, and K. Müllen* on page 152.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Communications
    1. Masthead: Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2/2014

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201470007

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Communications
    1. Contents: Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2/2014 (pages 115–121)

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201470008

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Precisely Controlled Polymer Architectures (page 122)

      Jean-François Lutz, Brent Sumerlin and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300871

  6. Feature Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Communications
    1. Systematic Studies of Morphological Changes of Precision Polyethylene (pages 123–132)

      Chip S. Few, Kenneth B. Wagener and Donovan L. Thompson

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300672

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      Acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) chemistry is used to synthesize polyethylene with precisely spaced defects along the backbone chain. Such precision polymers crystallize to form well-defined morphologies with narrow thickness distributions and various lattice types, including orthorhombic, triclinic, and cubic, depending on the identity and placement of the defects, both of which are designed into the monomer.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Editorial
    7. Feature Articles
    8. Communications
    1. Exploring Quality in Gradient Copolymers (pages 133–140)

      Andrea M. Elsen, Yuanchao Li, Qiaoxi Li, Sergei S. Sheiko and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300654

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      Quality of gradient copolymers synthesized by ARGET ATRP are evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and correlated with inline image/inline image values. Utilizing decreasing levels of catalyst concentrations in ARGET ATRP, copolymers with increasing inline image/inline image values are generated, which are further used to prepare molecular bottlebrushes. Copolymers synthesize with lower catalyst concentrations result in poorer gradient quality than those synthesized with larger amounts of catalyst.

    2. Synthesis of Molecularly Encoded Oligomers Using a Chemoselective “AB + CD” Iterative Approach (pages 141–145)

      Thanh Tam Trinh, Laurence Oswald, Delphine Chan-Seng and Jean-François Lutz

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300774

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      The synthesis of sequence-controlled oligomers based on an “AB-CD” chemoselective approach is described. The methodology employs an iterative strategy from a solid support and does not require the use of protecting groups. In the present communication, the relevance of this technique to encode oligomer chains is demonstrated.

    3. Efficient Synthesis of High Purity Homo-arm and Mikto-arm Poly(ethylene glycol) Stars Using Epoxide and Azide–Alkyne Coupling Chemistry (pages 146–151)

      Boyu Zhang, Hong Zhang, Ravinder Elupula, Alina M. Alb and Scott M. Grayson

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300623

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      By the combination of epoxide ring-opening and copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne click reaction, high purity homo-arm and mikto-arm polyethylene glycol star can be prepared successfully. This stepwise graft onto approach provides a new method to synthesis star polymer with an exact number of arms and a tailorable length for each arm.

    4. Tuning Polarity of Polyphenylene Dendrimers by Patched Surface Amphiphilicity—Precise Control over Size, Shape, and Polarity (pages 152–160)

      René Stangenberg, Irfan Saeed, Seah Ling Kuan, Martin Baumgarten, Tanja Weil, Markus Klapper and Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300671

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      Conformational precision is demonstrated by semi-rigid and shape-persistent amphiphilic polyphenylene dendrimers. Textures of polar and non-polar regions are created on the periphery by the defined placement of polar groups. Thereby, we can tune the polarity and thus the solubility and lipophilicity.

    5. Precision Synthesis of Bio-Based Acrylic Thermoplastic Elastomer by RAFT Polymerization of Itaconic Acid Derivatives (pages 161–167)

      Kotaro Satoh, Dong-Hyung Lee, Kanji Nagai and Masami Kamigaito

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300638

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      Controlled/living radical polymerization of naturally-derived itaconic acid derivatives, such as N-aryl itaconimide and dialkyl itaconate, is investigated with RAFT agents. Their sequential copolymerization using a difunctional RAFT agent leads to ABA-type triblock copolymer consisting of hard outer N-aryl itaconimide (A) and soft middle dialkyl itaconate (B) segments, which would be a novel bio-based thermoplastic elastomer.

    6. Brush-First Synthesis of Core-Photodegradable Miktoarm Star Polymers via ROMP: Towards Photoresponsive Self-Assemblies (pages 168–173)

      Alan O. Burts, Angela X. Gao and Jeremiah A. Johnson

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300618

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      The brush-first ROMP method is applied to the synthesis of two- and three-miktoarm brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) with photodegradable cores. These particles undergo intramolecular phase-segregation to form Janus-like assemblies. UV irradiation induces core degradation, which switches the assembly pathway from Janus particles to micelles.

    7. Let There Be Light: Photo-Cross-Linked Block Copolymer Nanoparticles (pages 174–179)

      Debashish Roy and Brent S. Sumerlin

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300642

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      Acrylamido block copolymers containing photo-cross-linkable pendant groups are prepared by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Star-like nanoparticle formation is triggered by either pre-assembly of the block copolymers into micelles and subsequent irradiation with light or by direct irradiation of homogeneous solutions of the block copolymer in a non-selective solvent.

    8. Topology-Dependent Swichability of Peptide Secondary Structures in Bioconjugates with Complex Architectures (pages 180–185)

      Hans G. Börner, Romina I. Sütterlin, Patrick Theato and Kerstin T. Wiss

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300808

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      The effect of conjugate topology on the reversible pH-responsive coil to α-helix secondary structure transition is described. Three peptide–polymer conjugates are synthesized, exhibiting similar poly(ethylenoxid) blocks but differing in topologies of the peptide bearing blocks. The study compares structural transitions and self-assembly of linear AB-bioconjugates with graft ABA-bioconjugates having multiple peptide segments combined in star or pom-pom topologies.

    9. Epoxides as Reducing Agents for Low-Catalyst-Concentration Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (pages 186–192)

      Shannon R. Woodruff, Brad J. Davis and Nicolay V. Tsarevsky

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300696

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      Epoxides can serve to reduce Cu(II) complexes in low-catalyst-concentration atom transfer radical polymerization. The controlled polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate is successfully carried out in the absence of any external reducing agents. The obtained epoxide-containing polymers are used as macroinitiators in chain extension reactions with methyl acrylate and methacrylate, also without addition of external reducing agents.

    10. Nanoparticles of Well-Defined 4-Arm Stars made using Nanoreactors in Water (pages 193–197)

      Khaled O. Sebakhy, Mikhail Gavrilov, David Valade, Zhongfan Jia and Michael J. Monteiro

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300665

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      Nanoreactors are used to produce well-defined polystyrene nanoparticles in water consisting of 4-arm stars using the R-group RAFT polymerization. The size and molecular weight could be independently controlled.

    11. Controlled Synthesis of Multi-Arm Star Polyether–Polycarbonate Polyols Based on Propylene Oxide and CO2 (pages 198–203)

      Jeannette Hilf, Patricia Schulze, Jan Seiwert and Holger Frey

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300663

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      Star-shaped aliphatic poly(ether–carbonate) polyols with tailored numbers of hydroxyl groups are prepared by combination of anionic polymerization and catalytic epoxide/CO2 copolymerization. The resulting structures only consist of propylene oxide, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of glycidol. The star-shaped polycarbonate polyols possess Mn between 2700 and 8800 g mol−1 (SEC; Mw/Mn = 1.23–1.62) and are promising as for the synthesis of polyurethanes.

    12. Synthesis of a Donor–Acceptor Diblock Copolymer via Two Mechanistically Distinct, Sequential Polymerizations Using a Single Catalyst (pages 204–209)

      Robert J. Ono, Alexander D. Todd, Zhongjian Hu, David A. Vanden Bout and Christopher W. Bielawski

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300440

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      A donor–acceptor block copolymer composed of mechanistically distinct poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and perylene diimide (PDI)-functionalized poly(isocyanide) segments is synthesized in one pot via sequential monomer addition using a single Ni catalyst. The diblock copolymer exhibits a fibrillar nanomorphology and undergoes photoluminescence quenching in the solid state.

    13. Electrochromic Poly(acetylene)s with Switchable Visible/Near-IR Absorption Characteristics (pages 210–213)

      Anja C. Pauly, C. Daniel Varnado Jr, Christopher W. Bielawski and Patrick Theato

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300530

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      Ferrocene-functionalized polyacetylenes are synthesized via the postpolymerization amidation of a precursor that features activated ester-leaving groups. Upon oxidation, the absorption profile of the copolymer shifts to the near-IR. The process is found to be reversible, and renders the polymer as an attractive candidate for use in electro-optic switching and related applications.

    14. RAFT Polymerization of 4-Vinylphenylboronic Acid as the Basis for Micellar Sugar Sensors (pages 214–220)

      Samarendra Maji, Gertjan Vancoillie, Lenny Voorhaar, Qilu Zhang and Richard Hoogenboom

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300540

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      Controlled RAFT homo and block (co)polymerization of commercially available 4-VBA is presented for the first time and the pH- and sugar- responsive self-assembly behavior of the block copolymer mPEG114-b-P(4-VBA)30is highlighted. It is envisioned that this strategy will be useful for the fabrication of micellar sugar sensors.

    15. Developing Porous Honeycomb Films Using Miktoarm Star Copolymers and Exploring Their Application in Particle Separation (pages 221–227)

      Chengyi Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Ke Min, Doyun Lee, Chuan Wei, Hannah Schulhauser and Haifeng Gao

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300581

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      Miktoarm star copolymers with high molecular weight and compact structure show advantageous properties on production of more uniform honeycomb films in a broader range of concentrations and humidity than linear block copolymers with similar composition but lower molecular weight. The produced honeycomb film with transverse channels and hydrophilic surface is successfully applied as membrane and shows efficient separation of polymeric microparticles with different sizes.

    16. Micellar Cathodes from Self-Assembled Nitroxide-Containing Block Copolymers in Battery Electrolytes (pages 228–233)

      Guillaume Hauffman, Quentin Maguin, Jean-Pierre Bourgeois, Alexandru Vlad and Jean-François Gohy

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300532

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      The self-assembly of poly(styrene)-block-poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) diblock copolymers into micellar cathodes is described. The obtained micelles are characterized by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. The micelles are embedded into a carbon nanotubes buckypaper to form a solid state cathode. The cathodes are tested in a Li-ion battery in a half-cell configuration.

    17. Revival of the R-Group Approach: A “CTA-shuttled” Grafting from Approach for Well-Defined Cylindrical Polymer Brushes via RAFT Polymerization (pages 234–241)

      Zhicheng Zheng, Jun Ling and Axel H. E. Müller

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300578

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      A facile “CTA-shuttled” R-group approach overcomes the challenge of synthesizing well-defined cylindrical polymer brushes (CPBs) from a linear polymer backbone with a high density of RAFT chain transfer agents. This new approach enables the exchange of activity between individual CPBs by suppressing the entrapment of active radicals.

    18. Preparation of Well-Defined Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Macromonomers via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (pages 242–248)

      Pengcheng Yang and Steven P. Armes

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300617

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      Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) macromonomers are prepared via ATRP using a tertiary amine-functionalized initiator, followed by quaternization using 4-vinylbenzyl chloride. Mean degrees of polymerization range from 20 to 70 as judged by 1H NMR and UV spectroscopy end-group analysis, while GPC indicates polydispersities of around 1.20. These new hydrophilic macromonomers are used to prepare near-monodisperse sterically-stabilized polystyrene latexes via alcoholic dispersion polymerization.

    19. Intra-Chain Photodimerization of Pendant Anthracene Units as an Efficient Route to Single-Chain Nanoparticle Fabrication (pages 249–253)

      Peter G. Frank, Bryan T. Tuten, Alka Prasher, Danming Chao and Erik B. Berda

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300677

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      The intra-chain photodimerization of anthracene-functionalized polymers in dilute solution is presented as an efficient route to architecturally defined nanoparticles. UV–vis spectroscopy confirms anthracene photodimerization, triple detection SEC confirms that these intramolecular linkages induce chains to fold into nanoparticles. TEM images reveal architecturally defined, oblong nanoparticles in the sub-20 nm size regime.

    20. Facile Preparation of Cobaltocenium-Containing Polyelectrolyte via Click Chemistry and RAFT Polymerization (pages 254–259)

      Yi Yan, Jiuyang Zhang, Yali Qiao and Chuanbing Tang

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/marc.201300558

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      A facile synthesis method to functional cobaltocenium-containing polyelectrolyte is reported. By using click chemistry and RAFT, the functional cationic cobaltocenium polymer is prepared from un-substituted cobaltocenium. The obtained polymer shows characteristic UV–vis absorption peaks and redox properties of the cobaltocenium group.

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