• doping;
  • sport;
  • mass spectrometry;
  • insulin;
  • orbitrap


Insulins' anabolic and anti-catabolic properties have supposedly led to its misuse in sport. Hence, doping control assays were developed to allow the unequivocal identification of synthetic insulin analogs and metabolic products derived from human insulin and its artificial counterparts in urine and plasma specimens. Analyses were based on immunoaffinity purification and subsequent characterization of target analytes by top-down sequencing-based approaches, which were conducted with hybrid tandem mass spectrometers that consisted of either quadrupole-linear ion trap or linear ion trap-orbitrap analyzers. Diagnostic product ions and analytical strategies are presented and discussed in light of the need to unambiguously identify misused drugs in urine and plasma specimens for doping control. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 27:35–50, 2008