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Protein carbonylation as a major hallmark of oxidative damage: Update of analytical strategies

Authors

  • Maria Fedorova,

    1. Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    2. Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BBZ), Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
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  • Ravi Chand Bollineni,

    1. Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    2. Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BBZ), Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
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  • Ralf Hoffmann

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    2. Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BBZ), Universität Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    • Correspondence to: Ralf Hoffmann, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BBZ), Universität Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. E-mail: hoffmann@chemie.uni-leipzig.de

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  • Maria Fedorova and Ravi Chand Bollineni contributed equally to this review.

Abstract

Protein carbonylation, one of the most harmful irreversible oxidative protein modifications, is considered as a major hallmark of oxidative stress-related disorders. Protein carbonyl measurements are often performed to assess the extent of oxidative stress in the context of cellular damage, aging and several age-related disorders. A wide variety of analytical techniques are available to detect and quantify protein-bound carbonyls generated by metal-catalyzed oxidation, lipid peroxidation or glycation/glycoxidation. Here we review current analytical approaches for protein carbonyl detection with a special focus on mass spectrometry-based techniques. The utility of several carbonyl-derivatization reagents, enrichment protocols and especially advanced mass spectrometry techniques are compared and discussed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms and biology of protein carbonylation are summarized based on recent high-throughput proteomics data. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 33: 79–97, 2014.

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