Novel linear and crosslinked polybetaines based on acrylic acid (AA) and ethyl 3-aminocrotonate (CRO) have been synthesized by a Michael addition reaction followed by radical polymerization. The polymerization of AA and CRO was carried out in bulk, water and organic solvents. The dependence of polymer yield on the molar ratio of monomers and water content was found. Primary attention was paid to linear and crosslinked polybetaines synthesized at equimolar ratio of monomers in the feed. The composition and structure of linear polybetaines was determined by elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The isoelectric points of linear and crosslinked polybetaines determined by electrophoresis, viscometry and swelling experiments corresponded to pH 2.0-2.2. The stimuli-sensitive properties of amphoteric gels were studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, water-organic solvent mixture, electric, and combined electric and magnetic fields. Appearance of pH gradient within the polyampholyte gel matrix under the externally imposed DC electric field was observed.