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Keywords:

  • 3D patterning;
  • TPA photoinitiators;
  • two-photon absorption;
  • two-photon photopolymerization

Abstract

Summary: This article describes the development and evolution of two-photon lithography of 3-dimensional (3D) polymeric structures through two-photon photopolymerization (TPP) and the materials used to facilitate the same. The first part elaborates on the advantages of TPP over conventional lithographic techniques used in the fabrication of 3D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The second part introduces the preparation of highly efficient organic two-photon absorbing materials based on the centro-symmetric π-conjugated system and their performance as sensitizers in two-photon polymerization.