Summary: This study focuses on the methodology to obtain nanocellulose from vegetal fibers. An experimental planning was carried out for the treatment of curaua fibers and parameters were estimated, having the concentration of H2SO4, hydrolysis time, reaction temperature and time of applied sonication as independent variables for further statistical analysis. According to the estimated parameters, the statistically significant effects were determined for the process of obtaining nanocellulose. With the results obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) it was observed that certain conditions led to cellulose with degradation temperatures near or even above that of the untreated cellulose fibers. The crystallinity index (IC) obtained after fiber treatment (by X-ray diffraction technique) was higher than that of the pure fiber. Treatments with high acid concentrations led to higher IC. After the statistical experimental design, mixtures of polypropylene with fibers prepared after different treatments were performed in a mini-extruder. It was possible to observe a sharp increase in the mechanical properties through the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA).