Summary: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were extracted from Kraft pulp of Eucalyptus urograndis. The CNC were isolated by acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 64% (w/w) solution, for 20 minutes at 45 °C. The morphology and crystallinity of the CNC were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The AFM image supports the evidence for the development of crystals of cellulose in nanometric scale. These nanoparticles were used as reinforcement material in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) matrix. Nanocomposites films were prepared by casting. The nanocomposites were characterized by thermal (TGA) and mechanical (DMA) analyses. A large reinforcing effect of the filler was observed. The tensile strength of nanocomposites was significantly improved by 107%, the elongation at break decreased by 48% and the thermal resistance increased slightly. The improvements in thermo-mechanical properties suggest a close association between filler and matrix.