Summary: Vegetable fibers are being widely used as reinforcement in polymer composites. These composites can be applied in several fields, such as automotive, packaging and even construction. The polymer matrix used was synthesized from glycerol with phthalic and terephthalic acids in order to open future perspectives in the use of glycerin generated from the production of purified biodiesel. Composites with 2, 5, 10 wt% untreated and treated piassava fiber were obtained. Thermal, morphological and mechanical properties were evaluated. The tensile stress-strain curve of the polyester synthesized and composites was typical of a ductile material. SEM of the surface of fracture showed that the adhesion between fiber and matrix was enhanced after chemical treatment. However, the fiber content was more efficient than the superficial treatment when incorporated into the matrix. Therefore, the material under study is promising for the industrial marketplace, due to its good compatibility with natural fibers.