• aggregation;
  • emission;
  • gold(I) complex;
  • iridium(III) complex;
  • metallophilic interaction;
  • platinum(II) complex;
  • poly-L-glutamic acid;
  • poly-L-lysine;
  • ruthenium(II) complex;
  • self-association


The assembling of anionic [Au(CN)2] spatially along cationic β-sheeted poly-L-lysine (P(Lys)) through electrostatic and aurophilic bonding interactions was demonstrated to form the luminescent [Au(CN)2] aggregate, wherein negatively charged [Au(CN)2] was found to stabilize the β-sheet structure by suppressing repulsion between the positively charged side chains. Poly-L-glutamic acid (P(Glu)) bearing multiple negatively charged side chains was performed to serve as a polymeric spatially aligned scaffold for aggregation of the positively charged platinum(II) complexes [Pt(trpy)C[TRIPLE BOND]CR](OTf) (trpy = 2,2′,6′,2″-terpyridine; R = Ph (PtH), C6H4C12H25-p (PtC12)) through electrostatic interaction, resulting in tunable emission properties. The introduction of the cationic luminescent iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes into P(Glu) as a polymeric scaffold, wherein control of the conformational change of P(Glu) was achieved, was also allowed to induce the tuning of the emission properties and energy transfer in aqueous media.