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MicrobiologyOpen

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 1

February 2013

Volume 2, Issue 1

Pages i–ii, 1–213

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.75

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Unique secreted–surface protein complex of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, identified by phage display (pages 1–17)

      Dragana Gagic, Wesley Wen, Michael A. Collett and Jasna Rakonjac

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.53

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      A pair of interacting extracellular proteins in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 was discovered using two successive affinity screenings of L. rhamnosus phage display library. This proves that phage display is effective in revealing interactions of surface proteins, which are normally of low abundance in the cell and very hard to express and purify.

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      Extracellular proteases are key mediators of Staphylococcus aureus virulence via the global modulation of virulence-determinant stability (pages 18–34)

      Stacey L. Kolar, J. Antonio Ibarra, Frances E. Rivera, Joe M. Mootz, Jessica E. Davenport, Stanley M. Stevens, Alexander R. Horswill and Lindsey N. Shaw

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.55

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      We show here that secreted proteases are major regulators of Staphylococcus aureus infections. They function by not only cleaving self-derived virulence determinants to control the progression of infection, but possess their own, innate, virulence affecting properties as well. As such, they can be consider key factors in the control of S. aureus disease progression.

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      First insights into the syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria – a genetic study (pages 35–53)

      Bettina Müller, Li Sun and Anna Schnürer

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.50

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      In this article we provide the first genetic characterization of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) being able to make a living close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. To understand the fundamental biochemical and regulatory mechanisms behind syntrophic acetate oxidation, we identified the respective formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs), encoding a key enzyme of the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway used by these organisms under heterotrophic and syntrophic growth conditions. We further investigated fhs mRNA expression and analyzed the surrounding gene structures.

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      Environmental selection of protistan plankton communities in hypersaline anoxic deep-sea basins, Eastern Mediterranean Sea (pages 54–63)

      Sabine Filker, Alexandra Stock, Hans-Werner Breiner, Virginia Edgcomb, William Orsi, Michail M. Yakimov and Thorsten Stoeck

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.56

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      Environmental factors relating protistan plankton communities in hypersaline anoxic deep-sea basins in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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      Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus (pages 64–74)

      Yossi Cohen, F. Joseph Pollock, Eugene Rosenberg and David G. Bourne

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.52

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      We demonstrate a study showing the potential to develop biocontrol to the spread of coral disease using bacteriophage therapy.

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      Sa-Lrp from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a versatile, glutamine-responsive, and architectural transcriptional regulator (pages 75–93)

      Amelia Vassart, Marleen Van Wolferen, Alvaro Orell, Ye Hong, Eveline Peeters, Sonja-Verena Albers and Daniel Charlier

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.58

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      The Lrp-like regulator Sa-Lrp binds in a glutamine-dependent manner to AT-rich binding sites and induces bending and wrapping upon binding. Furthermore, by analyzing an Sa-lrp deletion mutant, we demonstrate that the protein affects transcription of some of the genes of which the promoter region is targeted and that it is an important determinant of the cellular aggregation phenotype. Therefore, Sa-Lrp is a glutamine-responsive global transcriptional regulator with an additional architectural role.

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      Cell-free production of integral membrane aspartic acid proteases reveals zinc-dependent methyltransferase activity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa prepilin peptidase PilD (pages 94–104)

      Khaled A. Aly, Emily T. Beebe, Chi H. Chan, Michael A. Goren, Carolina Sepúlveda, Shin-ichi Makino, Brian G. Fox and Katrina T. Forest

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.51

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      The integral membrane aspartic acid protease PilD was synthesized in a cell-free translation system, as was its full-length substrate, PilA. The purified enzyme displayed both of its known biochemical activities: cleavage of the PilA signal peptide and S-adenosyl methionine-dependent methylation of the mature PilA. We show that PilD is a zinc binding protein, and zinc is required for the methylation activity but not the peptidase activity of PilD.

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      The exopolysaccharide gene cluster Bcam1330Bcam1341 is involved in Burkholderia cenocepacia biofilm formation, and its expression is regulated by c-di-GMP and Bcam1349 (pages 105–122)

      Mustafa Fazli, Yvonne McCarthy, Michael Givskov, Robert P. Ryan and Tim Tolker-Nielsen

      Article first published online: 25 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.61

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      The molecular basis of the wrinkled colony morphotype of Burkholderia cenocepacia H111 that is displayed upon overexpression of the c-di-GMP binding CRP/FNR family member Bcam1349 and upon elevated c-di-GMP levels is investigated. A novel putative exopolysaccharide is the cause of the wrinkled colony morphology type and also required for pellicle formation and SDS-resistant flow-cell biofilm formation. Transcription of genes encoding this exopolysaccharide is upregulated upon Bcam1349 and c-di-GMP overexpression and Bcam1349 binds to the promoter region in a c-di-GMP dependent fashion.

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      Single-cell analysis of cell viability after a biocide treatment unveils an absence of positive correlation between two commonly used viability markers (pages 123–129)

      Adrien Ducret and Sam Dukan

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.62

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      A microfluidic device was used to immobilize cells in a flow chamber in which different solutions were sequentially injected according to different scenarios. By using time-lapse microscopy, the ability of cell to divide (direct viable count) and the metabolic activity (CV6) were assessed on the same cells after a biocide treatment (sodium hypochlorite). These results indicate that the relation between CV6 uptake and cell viability may be partially incorrect.

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      Phylogenetic composition and distribution of picoeukaryotes in the hypoxic northwestern coast of the Gulf of Mexico (pages 130–143)

      Emma Rocke, Hongmei Jing and Hongbin Liu

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.57

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      The phylogenetic analysis of oxic surface and hypoxic bottom waters from the Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2010 revealed a dominance of parasitic dinoflagellates and high picoeukaryote biodiversity in hypoxic samples. This study concluded that hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico causes a significant shift in picoeukaryote community structure, including many novel species which could result in a significant shift in the microbial food web and biogeochemical cycle in marine coastal hypoxic waters.

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      Evidence that a transcription factor regulatory network coordinates oxidative stress response and secondary metabolism in aspergilli (pages 144–160)

      Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V. Roze, Josephine Wee and John E. Linz

      Article first published online: 1 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.63

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      The data strongly suggest that at least four transcription factors (AtfB, SrrA, AP-1, and MsnA) participate in the regulatory network that induces aflatoxin biosynthesis as part of the cellular response to oxidative stress in Aspergillus parasiticus.

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      The global regulator Crc plays a multifaceted role in modulation of type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pages 161–172)

      Yi-Hu Dong, Xi-Fen Zhang and Lian-Hui Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.54

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      By detailed genetic and transcriptomic analysis this study confirmed the critical role of Crc, a RNA-binding protein, in the regulation of type III secretion system (T3SS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The regulatory function of Crc on the T3SS was mediated through the T3SS master regulator ExsA and linked to the Cbr/Crc signaling system. Crc seemed to modulate T3SS by participating in many known T3SS-related regulatory mechanisms. This complex and multi-faceted effect of Crc may serve to fine-tune the T3SS to accurately sense and respond to environmental signals and nutrient sources, thereby creating a powerful virulence machinery.

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      Dietary format alters fecal bacterial populations in the domestic cat (Felis catus) (pages 173–181)

      Emma N. Bermingham, Wayne Young, Sandra Kittelmann, Katherine R. Kerr, Kelly S. Swanson, Nicole C. Roy and David G. Thomas

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.60

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      A study was completed to assess the effects of commerically available diets on the faecal microbiota of the domestic cat. This work provides the first information on what the faecal microbiota is on these diets and how they differ between diets.

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      The anguibactin biosynthesis and transport genes are encoded in the chromosome of Vibrio harveyi: a possible evolutionary origin for the pJM1 plasmid–encoded system of Vibrio anguillarum? (pages 182–194)

      Hiroaki Naka, Luis A. Actis and Jorge H. Crosa

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.65

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      The chromosomal encoded anguibactin cluster was identified from Vibrio harveyi. angR and fatA, in this chromosome cluster participate in anguibactin biosynthesis and transport, respectively. This finding indicates that the anguibactin cluster found in the pJM1 plasmid of V. anguillarum serotype O1 strains could possibly have acquired from the chromosome locus found in V. harveyi.

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      Interspecific variations in the gastrointestinal microbiota in penguins (pages 195–204)

      Meagan L. Dewar, John P. Y. Arnould, Peter Dann, Phil Trathan, Rene Groscolas and Stuart Smith

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.66

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      This study uses quantitative real-time PCR and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to examine the fecal microbiota of king, gentoo, macaroni, and little penguins.

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      Isolation of Arthrobacter species from the phyllosphere and demonstration of their epiphytic fitness (pages 205–213)

      Tanja R. Scheublin and Johan H. J. Leveau

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.59

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      Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are known to biodegrade aromatic pollutants and typically reside in soil environments, but they can also be found on the surfaces of plant leaves. In this study, the ability of several Arthrobacter species to reproduce and survive on plant leaves is demonstrated. This finding highlights the potential of Arthrobacter species to be used for phylloremediation, i.e. the removal of foliage-associated organic pollutants by members of the phyllosphere community.

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