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MicrobiologyOpen

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 4

August 2013

Volume 2, Issue 4

Pages i–ii, 541–715

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Corrigendum
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      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.118

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Corrigendum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Taxonomic composition of the particle-attached and free-living bacterial assemblages in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA (pages 541–552)

      Bibiana G. Crespo, Thomas Pommier, Beatriz Fernández-Gómez and Carlos Pedrós-Alió

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.92

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      Particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacterial assemblages are analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA for the first time. This technique has allowed revisiting the question of how similar are the FL and PA bacterial assemblages that has been studied before using conventional molecular techniques. We have shown several new findings with respect to the previous studies: richness is higher in PA than in FL bacterial assemblages, pyrosequencing has allowed the incorporation of rare species into our analyses, we provide the taxonomic composition of both assemblages as well as their spatial distribution. New bacterial taxa have been added to the PA bacterial pool and differences in the taxonomic composition of the PA bacterial assemblages have been found depending on the location of the samples.

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      New ex vivo reporter assay system reveals that σ factors of an unculturable pathogen control gene regulation involved in the host switching between insects and plants (pages 553–565)

      Yoshiko Ishii, Shigeyuki Kakizawa and Kenro Oshima

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.93

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      Phytoplasma, an unculturable plant pathogen, could infect plant and insect cells, and dramatically changes their genes upon the response to these hosts. By a new system developed in this study, interactions between phytoplasma promoters and sigma factors were analyzed, and overall gene expression regulation mechanism could be revealed. This model illustrates the RpoD and FliA regulatory network in phytoplasma cells during host switching.

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      Antibacterial activity of a lectin-like Burkholderia cenocepacia protein (pages 566–575)

      Maarten G. K. Ghequire, Evelien De Canck, Pierre Wattiau, Iris Van Winge, Remy Loris, Tom Coenye and René De Mot

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.95

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      Bacteriocins mediate highly selective antagonism among closely related bacteria but such antimicrobial proteins have not yet been reported in Burkholderia. We identified a lectin-like protein of the LlpA family in a Burkholderia cenocepacia human isolate that strain-specifically and selectively kills planktonic and biofilm cells of other Burkholderia cepacia complex members.

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      Genetic determinants of swimming motility in the squid light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri (pages 576–594)

      Caitlin A. Brennan, Mark J. Mandel, Mattias C. Gyllborg, Krista A. Thomasgard and Edward G. Ruby

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.96

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      We characterized the genetic basis of motility in the squid light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri by performing (i) a forward-genetic screen to identify mutants defective in soft-agar motility, as well as (ii) a transcriptional analysis to determine the genes that are expressed downstream of the flagellar master regulator FlrA. Using these complementary approaches, we have furthered our understanding of the roles of flagellar motility and chemotaxis in colonization of the juvenile squid, including identifying 11 novel mutants unable to enter into a productive light-organ symbiosis.

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      Analysis of a conserved cellulase transcriptional regulator reveals inducer-independent production of cellulolytic enzymes in Neurospora crassa (pages 595–609)

      Samuel T. Coradetti, Yi Xiong and N. Louise Glass

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.94

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      A comparative analysis of cellulose deconstruction by two divergent filamentous fungi, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans, revealed conserved and divergent aspects. Mis-expression of a conserved cellulose-responsive transcriptional regulator, CLR-2, in N. crassa resulted in inducer-independent induction of cellulolytic enzymes, while A. nidulans still required the presence of an inducer molecule. Manipulation of clr-2 orthologs among filamentous fungi may enable regulated cellulosic enzyme production in a wide array of culture conditions.

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      Role of the mannose receptor in phagocytosis of Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 by antigen-presenting cells (pages 610–617)

      Takeshi Tsuruta, Ryo Inoue, Takayuki Nagino, Ryoichiro Nishibayashi, Yuko Makioka and Kazunari Ushida

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.99

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      This aim of this study was to clarify the phagocytic mechanisms of a heat-killed cell preparation of Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 (EC-12) by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Our findings suggest that mannose receptor (MR) plays a major role in EC-12 phagocytosis by the APCs.

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      Overexpression of the Escherichia coli TolQ protein leads to a null-FtsN-like division phenotype (pages 618–632)

      Mary A. Teleha, Adam C. Miller and Ray A. Larsen

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.101

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      Over-expression of the cytoplasmic membrane protein TolQ resulted in a division phenotype similar to that seen in cells depleted for FtsN. Two hybrid analysis suggested that TolQ and FtsN physically interact through domains that localize in the periplasmic space; while the concurrent over-expression of FtsN alleviated the TolQ over-expression phenotype. Together these results suggest a model wherein over-expressed TolQ sequesters FtsN, disrupting normal cell division.

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      Dynamics of natural prokaryotes, viruses, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in alpine karstic groundwater (pages 633–643)

      Inés C. Wilhartitz, Alexander K. T. Kirschner, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Ulrike R. Fischer, Claudia Wieltschnig, Hermann Stadler and Andreas H. Farnleitner

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.98

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      Seasonal dynamics of naturally occurring prokaryotes, viruses and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in two hydro-geologically contrasting alpine karst springs were monitored over three annual cycles. Data revealed a strong dependence of the microbial communities on the prevailing hydrological situation.

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      Microbial diversity in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis (Orchidaceae) species (pages 644–658)

      Hans Jacquemyn, Marijke Lenaerts, Daniel Tyteca and Bart Lievens

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.103

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      In this study, we describe the microbial communities in the floral nectar of seven Epipactis species. Despite previous claims that the floral nectar of orchids is characterized by the presence of several antimicrobial substances that possibly limit microbial growth, we found a wide variety of both bacterial and yeast species.

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      Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand (pages 659–673)

      Vathsala Mohan, Mark Stevenson, Jonathan Marshall, Paul Fearnhead, Barbara R. Holland, Grant Hotter and Nigel P. French

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.102

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      We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and evolution of Campylobacter jejuni in urban ducks and starlings.

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      Identification of a metagenomic gene cluster containing a new class A beta-lactamase and toxin-antitoxin systems (pages 674–683)

      Ken Vercammen, Tamara Garcia-Armisen, Nathalie Goeders, Laurence Van Melderen, Josselin Bodilis and Pierre Cornelis

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.104

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      Functional screening of a water sample metagenomic library led to the discovery of a new type of class A beta lactamase. Analysis of the genomic context revealed the presence of genes coding for type II toxin-antitoxin systems, which were experimentally validated.

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      Identification in Marinomonas mediterranea of a novel quinoprotein with glycine oxidase activity (pages 684–694)

      Jonatan Cristian Campillo-Brocal, Patricia Lucas-Elio and Antonio Sanchez-Amat

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.107

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      Marinomonas mediterranea synthesizes a glycine oxidase (GoxA) with sequence similarity to LodA, a previously described lysine-epsilon-oxidase. Both LodA and GoxA are quinoproteins, unlike other amino acid oxidases which are flavoproteins.

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      Transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of paralogous spx gene function in Bacillus anthracis Sterne (pages 695–714)

      Skye Barendt, Hyunwoo Lee, Cierra Birch, Michiko M. Nakano, Marcus Jones and Peter Zuber

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.109

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      Bacillus anthracis harbors two paralogs of the global transcriptional regulator of stress response, SpxA. SpxA1 and SpxA2 contribute to disulfide stress tolerance, but only SpxA1 functions in resistance to peroxide. Transcriptome analysis uncovered potential SpxA1 and SpxA2 regulon members, which include genes activated by both paralogs. However, paralog-specific gene activation was also observed. Genes encoding glutamate racemase, CoA disulfide reductase, and products functioning in bacillithiol biosynthesis, are among the genes activated by the SpxA paralogs.

  3. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Corrigendum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article

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