In addition to being a central coordinator of immune responses, NF-κB signaling also plays a critical role in cancer development and progression and it may determine the response to therapy. NF-κB activation was shown to provide a critical mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer and is a major factor that controls the ability of both preneoplastic and malignant cells to resist apoptosis-based tumor surveillance mechanisms. NF-κB may also be involved in regulation of tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. Importantly, NF-κB and the signaling pathways that mediate its activation have become attractive targets for development of new chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic approaches. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.