Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate signals that are critically involved in innate immune responses and that contribute to the initiation of adaptive immune responses. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenol found in red grapes and in several other plant sources, is an effective chemopreventive agent in cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether TLR4 was required for the chemopreventive action of resveratrol in DMBA skin carcinogenesis. For this purpose, mice with normal and deficient TLR4 function were compared when pretreated with resveratrol and then subjected to a DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis protocol. There were fewer tumors/group (P < 0.001) in resveratrol treated TLR4 competent C3H/HeN mice than in TLR4 deficient C3H/HeJ mice. In addition, the size of tumors in C3H/HeN mice was reduced in vivo and their survival in vitro was inhibited by resveratrol to a significantly greater extent than in C3H/HeJ mice. Resveratrol inhibited angiogenesis to a much greater extent in the TLR4 competent mice than in TLR4 deficient mice. IFN-γ and IL-12 levels were also increased in TLR4 competent mice compared to TLR4 deficient mice, and TLR4 competent C3H/HeN mice exhibited a greater increase in the cell-mediated immune response to DMBA. The results of this study indicate that TLR4 is an important mediator of resveratrol chemoprevention in DMBA skin tumorigenesis. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.