To explore the associations of SNPs within hsa-miR-605 (rs2043556) and hsa-miR-149 (rs2292832) and lifestyle-related factors with gastrointestinal cancer, a case–control study including 762 cases and 757 controls was conducted. Marginally significant associations were found both for hsa-miR-149 rs2292832 with gastric cancer risk (TC + CC vs. TT, OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44–1.04) and for hsa-miR-605 rs2043556 with colorectal cancer risk (AG + GG vs. AA, OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48–1.02) in males. Tea drinking showed a protective effect on gastric cancer risk (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.13–0.60), while smoke inhalation increased the risk of gastric cancer (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.08–3.47). Irritability was found to be a risk factor for both colorectal cancer (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02–2.53) and gastric cancer (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.17–3.29). Among those that engaged in smoke inhalation, miR-149 CT/CC and miR-605 AG/GG genotype carriers had increased susceptibilities to colorectal cancer (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11–3.25) and gastric cancer (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.03–3.42), respectively. Among the tea drinkers, there exists a marginally protective effect of miR-605 AG/GG genotypes on colorectal cancer incidence (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.47–1.06) and a significantly protective effect of miR-149 CT/CC on gastric cancer incidence (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.29–0.77). The SNPs of rs2292832 and rs2043556 might be able to modify the susceptibility to male gastric and colorectal cancers, respectively. Tea drinking is a protective factor, while smoke inhalation is a risk factor for gastric cancer, and they might have the potential to modify the associations between miR-149 and miR-605 polymorphisms with gastrointestinal cancer risk. In addition, irritability was shown to be a risk factor for both gastric and colorectal cancers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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