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Nutlin-3 enhances sorafenib efficacy in renal cell carcinoma

Authors

  • Rit Vatsyayan,

    1. Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas
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  • Jyotsana Singhal,

    1. Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas
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  • Lokesh Dalasanur Nagaprashantha,

    1. Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, National Medical Center, Duarte, California
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  • Sanjay Awasthi,

    1. Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, National Medical Center, Duarte, California
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  • Sharad S. Singhal

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, National Medical Center, Duarte, California
    • Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010.
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Abstract

The renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the top 10 cancers in USA. The renal tumors are highly angiogenic and are resistant to conventional interventions, particularly radiotherapy. The advent of multi-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib has improved the progression-free survival in RCC, but overall survival in recurrent and metastatic RCC is still a concern that has lead to characterization of combinatorial regimens. Hence, we studied the effect of combination of nutlin-3, an MDM2 inhibitor, which increases p53 levels, and sorafenib in RCC. Sorafenib along with nutlin-3 synergistically inhibited the cell survival and enhanced caspase-3 cleavage leading to apoptosis in RCC. Nutlin-3 and sorafenib were more effective in reducing the migration of RCC, in combination than as single agents. Sorafenib and nutlin-3 decreased the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and ERK along with inducing p53 activity. The sorafenib and nutlin-3 co-treatment lead to enhanced levels of p53, p-p53, and increase in the levels of p53 pro-apoptotic effector PUMA, Bax, and decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 levels. Importantly, our studies revealed that sorafenib alone can activate p53 in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, co-treatment of nutlin-3 with sorafenib leads to increased half-life of p53, which in turn can be activated by sorafenib, to induce downstream pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects. This is the first report showing the synergistic effect of sorafenib and nutlin-3 while providing a strong clinical-translational rationale for further testing of sorafenib and nutlin-3 combinatorial regimen in human RCC. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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