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Keywords:

  • glioblastoma;
  • apoptosis;
  • autophagy;
  • EGFR

Abstract

The importance of aberrant EGFR signaling in glioblastoma progression and the promise of EGFR-specific therapies, prompted us to determine the efficacy of novel EGFR inhibitor BIBU-1361 [(3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenyl)-[6-(4-diethylaminomethyl-piperidin-1-yl)-pyrimido [5,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-amine] in affecting glioma survival. BIBU induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner and induced cell cycle arrest in glioma cells. Apoptosis was accompanied by decreased EGFR levels and its increased distribution towards caveolin rich lipid raft microdomains. BIBU inhibited pro-survival pathways Akt/mTOR and gp130/JAK/STAT3; and decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. BIBU caused increased LC3-I to LC3-II conversion and triggered the internalization of EGFR within vacuoles along with its increased co-localization with LC3-II. BIBU caused accumulation of p62 and increased levels of cleaved forms of Beclin-1 in all the cell lines tested. Importantly, BIBU failed to initiate execution of autophagy as pharmacological inhibition of autophagy with 3-Methyladenine or Bafilomycin failed to rescue BIBU mediated death. The ability of BIBU to abrogate Akt and STAT3 activation, induce apoptosis and prevent execution of autophagy warrants its investigation as a potent anti-glioma target. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.