Consumer scholars have amassed an impressive body of knowledge using a wide range of methodological approaches and paradigms. Despite the scientific rigor of the consumer behavior discipline, most scholars that have reviewed the field agree that it has yielded a fragmented and confused literature. It is argued here that this is in part due to the near paucity of evolutionary-based theorizing within the theoretical frameworks used by consumer scholars. While evolutionary psychology focuses on ultimate causation namely the adaptive origins of a particular cognition, emotion, preference, or behavior, the consumer behavior discipline has overwhelmingly addressed proximate mechanisms. Both levels of analyses are needed for a full understanding of consumption phenomena. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.