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Listing Standards and Fraud


Correspondence to: Schulich School of Business, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. E-mail:


Statistics reporting litigated cases of fraud on an exchange-by-exchange basis are not readily available to investors. This paper introduces data from three countries with multiple exchanges operating under different listing standards, – Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States – to show litigated cases of fraud significantly vary by country, and the different exchanges within the country. Comparisons are also made to Brazil, China and Germany to assess out-of-sample inferences. The data examined suggest there are significant differences in the nature of observed fraud across exchanges within the United States; by contrast, outside the United States there appears to be a comparative lack of enforcement. The data also suggest policy implications for the ways in which fraud should ideally be reported to improve investor knowledge, market transparency and market quality. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.