• botulinum toxin;
  • detrusor;
  • hyperreflexia;
  • urology


Botulinum toxin has been used in urology since the end of the 1980s. However, this therapeutic option has not been firmly established yet. Valid studies have merely been conducted on detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) and on detrusor overactivity (hyperreflexia), but even those findings do not allow final conclusions. Success rates in DSD are between 58% and 88%, in detrusor overactivity approximately 80%. Further possible indications for botulinum toxin are motor and sensory urge, urethrospasm, spasticity of the pelvic floor, neobladder, and even chronic prostatic pain. To reach firmer conclusions, controlled studies with well-defined patient populations and using validated and reproducible outcome measures are needed. In addition, we also need information on repeated injections over a long period of time. These data are not available to date. At present, the application of botulinum toxin should be reserved for experienced users only. © 2004 Movement Disorder Society