• botulinum toxin;
  • cerebral palsy;
  • children;
  • injection;
  • sonography;
  • psoas muscle;
  • multi-level treatment


Local injection of botulinum toxin (BT) is a well-established treatment option for spastic movement disorders in children. BT blocks the release of acetylcholine from the axon terminal into the synaptic cleft of the motor endplate resulting in paresis of the injected musculature. Such localised, temporary chemodenervation of affected muscles can lead to functional gains and may improve the child's daily routine and rehabilitative care. We summarise state-of-the-art treatment of spasticity in children with BT type A, addressing critical issues and introducing recent advances, such as sonography-guided injection of BT and the distal injection of the psoas muscle without the need for general anaesthesia. First-hand experience with BT type B in children is presented. © 2004 Movement Disorder Society