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Keywords:

  • dystonia;
  • pain;
  • musician;
  • psychology;
  • anxiety;
  • perfectionism

Abstract

Psychological conditions were studied in 20 musicians with focal dystonia and compared with 20 musicians with chronic pain and 30 healthy musicians using the Freiburg Personality Inventory and the Questionnaire for Competence and Control Orientations. Additional questionnaires focused on perfectionism and anxiety particularly with regard to the dynamics of these psychological features. Musicians with focal dystonia and those with chronic pain more often displayed anxiety than controls. In both patient groups, anxiety was present before onset of the playing-related disorder. Dystonic musicians additionally showed higher levels of perfectionism than controls, which was not observed in musicians with chronic pain. © 2004 Movement Disorder Society