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Kufor Rakeb Disease: Autosomal recessive, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal degeneration, supranuclear gaze palsy, and dementia



Kufor Rakeb disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by subacute, juvenile-onset, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, dementia, and a supranuclear gaze palsy. It was originally described more than a decade ago, and linkage analysis identified a locus on chromosome 1p36 that was previously assigned PARK9. We have further characterized the clinical picture and specifically re-assessed the response to levodopa in the original family, in the northern highlands of Jordan. In the 4 surviving patients, there has been a narrowing of the therapeutic window for levodopa with the emergence of peak-dose dyskinesias with increased spasticity and cognitive decline. Several new features were identified, including facial-faucial-finger mini-myoclonus, visual hallucinations, and oculogyric dystonic spasms. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society