Smokeless tobacco use and the risk of Parkinson's disease mortality



We examined the association between smokeless tobacco use and Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality as assessed by death certificate in a prospective cohort of 95,981 never-smoking men. In this cohort, smokeless tobacco use is inversely associated with PD mortality, with an age-adjusted risk of 0.22 (0.07–0.67) among current users compared to never users. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society