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Focal dystonia in musicians: Treatment strategies and long-term outcome in 144 patients



We present the long-term outcome of 144 musicians with focal dystonia after treatment with botulinum toxin (n = 71), trihexiphenidyl (n = 69), pedagogical retraining (n = 24), ergonomic changes (n = 51), or nonspecific exercises on the instrument (n = 78). Outcome was assessed by patients' subjective rating of cumulative treatment response and response to individual therapies. Seventy-seven patients (54%) reported an alleviation of symptoms: 33% of the patients with trihexiphenidyl, 49% with botulinum toxin, 50% with pedagogical retraining, 56% with unmonitored technical exercises, and 63% with ergonomic changes. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society