Bladder dysfunction in Parkinsonism: Mechanisms, prevalence, symptoms, and management

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Abstract

The advent of functional imaging methods has increased our understanding of the neural control of the bladder. This review examines current concepts of the role of brain function in urinary control with particular emphasis on the putative role of dopamine receptors. Dopaminergic mechanisms play a profound role in normal bladder control and the dysfunction of these may result in symptoms of overactive bladder in Parkinsonism. The importance of this nonmotor disorder has been overlooked. We address the problem of bladder dysfunction as it presents to patients and their neurologist. The prevalence of bladder symptoms in Parkinson's disease is high; the most common complaint is nocturia followed by frequency and urgency. In multiple-system atrophy, the combination of urge and urge incontinence and poor emptying may result in a complex combination of complaints. The management of bladder dysfunction in Parkinsonism addresses treatment of overactive detrusor as well as incontinence. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society

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