Direct costs of managing Parkinson's disease in india: Concerns in a developing country



Medicines and surgical interventions improve the quality of life of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. These are still expensive options and are unaffordable to those living in developing countries. Managing PD in Indians who have a low annual gross national income (GNI; US$ 450–540) and for whom only a few (3%) have health insurance is a challenge. We interviewed 175 consecutive PD patients regarding health insurance and money spent for treatment. The annual income of nearly half the patients was less than rupees 50,000 (US$ 1,148.63). Patients in this study spend nearly 16% to 41.7% of the average Indian GNI to buy medicines. Costs of treating PD in India are lower than those in developed nations but are still out of reach for most Indian patients. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society