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Assessment of brain iron and neuronal integrity in patients with Parkinson's disease using novel MRI contrasts

Authors

  • Shalom Michaeli PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    • Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 2021 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455
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  • Gülin öz PhD,

    1. Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
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  • Dennis J. Sorce PhD,

    1. Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
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  • Michael Garwood PhD,

    1. Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
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  • Kamil Ugurbil PhD,

    1. Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
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  • Stacy Majestic PhD,

    1. Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
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  • Paul Tuite MD

    1. Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
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Abstract

Postmortem demonstration of increased iron in the substantia nigra (SN) is a well-appreciated finding in Parkinson's disease (PD). Iron facilitates generation of free radicals, which are thought to play a role in dopamine neuronal loss. To date, however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has failed to show significant in vivo differences in SN iron levels in subjects with PD versus control subjects. This finding may be due to the limitations in tissue contrasts achievable with conventional T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences that have been used. With the recent development of novel rotating frame transverse (T) and longitudinal (T) relaxation MRI methods that appear to be sensitive to iron and neuronal loss, respectively, we embarked on a study of 8 individuals with PD (Hoehn & Yahr, Stage II) and 8 age-matched control subjects. Using these techniques with a 4T MRI magnet, we assessed iron deposits and neuronal integrity in the SN. First, T MRI, which is reflective of iron-related dynamic dephasing mechanisms (e.g., chemical exchange and diffusion in the locally different magnetic susceptibilities), demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the PD and control group, while routine T2 MRI did not. Second, T measurements, which appear to reflect upon neuronal count, indicated neuronal loss in the SN in PD. We show here that sub-millimeter resolution T and T MRI relaxation methods can provide a noninvasive measure of iron content as well as evidence of neuronal loss in the midbrain of patients with PD. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society

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