This article includes Supplementary Video, available online at

jws-mds.21235.animA.mov2670K Segment 1 . This is an experiment comparing two aged male mice: one receiving MPTP in ethanol for 10 days and the other receiving vehicle injections. The video is taken on day 4 of vehicle versus MPTP treatment. The animal that is shown first is the vehicle-injected mouse and it is moving normally. However, the other mouse pictured is the MPTP-treated mouse. It is hypokinetic and exhibits the Straub tail phenomenon. Later the two animals are pictured together. The vehicle-injected mouse (left) moves normally, while the MPTP-treated mouse (right) is minimally interactive. Notice how the normal mouse will explore the environment, while the MPTP-treated mouse moves minimally. Within the first week, the MPTP-treated mouse will recover its motor function and become indistinguishable from the vehicle-injected mouse.
jws-mds.21235.animB.mov2561K Segment 2 . These two animals are the same mice that were recorded previously in the first video segment. It is 2 weeks later, and both mice have received 3 days of carbidopa/ L -dopa b.i.d. The mouse on the left previously received MPTP, while the animal on the right was the vehicle-injected control mouse. The previously MPTP-treated mouse has developed extreme hyperkinesis in response toL -dopa, while the control mouse acts normally. Levodopa-induced hyperkinesis in this previously MPTP-treated mouse is quite impressive, with panting and almost constant movement.

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