SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • Gilles de la Tourette syndrome;
  • ADHD;
  • antineuronal antibodies;
  • cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuitry;
  • OCD

Abstract

The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) spectrum includes psychiatric comorbidities, mainly obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The role of environmental factors, e.g., antineuronal antibodies (ANeA), remains unclear. We compared the clinical features of ANeA-positive and ANeA-negative patients in 53 children and 75 adults with GTS. All diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. A positive ANeA Western immunoblot showed bands for at least 1 of 3 reported striatal antigens (40, 45, and 60 kDa). Twelve children (23%) and 18 adults (25%) with GTS were ANeA-positive. Disease duration, tic phenomenology and severity, frequency of echo/pali/coprophenomena, self-injurious and aggressive behavior, or frequency of OCD comorbidity did not significantly differ between ANeA-positive and negative patients. Similar findings were obtained analyzing separately the three different antibody reactivities. A comorbid diagnosis of ADHD was significantly less frequent in GTS patients positive for the anti-60 kDa antibody only. Using a multivariate logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, and age at disease onset, a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD remained inversely associated with anti-60 kDa antibodies (odds ratio = 0.14; P = 0.002; 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.49). ANeA status does not differentiate a specific phenotype of GTS. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society