Combined effects of smoking, coffee, and NSAIDs on Parkinson's disease risk

Authors

  • Karen M. Powers BS,

    1. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
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  • Denise M. Kay PhD,

    1. Genomics Institute, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York
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  • Stewart A. Factor DO,

    1. Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
    2. Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Center, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York
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  • Cyrus P. Zabetian MD, MS,

    1. Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington
    2. Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington
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  • Donald S. Higgins MD,

    1. Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Center, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York
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  • Ali Samii MD,

    1. Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington
    2. Parkinson's Disease Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington
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  • John G. Nutt MD,

    1. Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon
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  • Alida Griffith MD,

    1. Booth Gardner Parkinson's Care Center, Evergreen Hospital Medical Center, Kirkland, Washington
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  • Berta Leis PhD,

    1. Booth Gardner Parkinson's Care Center, Evergreen Hospital Medical Center, Kirkland, Washington
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  • John W. Roberts MD,

    1. Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington
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  • Erica D. Martinez BS,

    1. Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington
    2. Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington
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  • Jennifer S. Montimurro BS,

    1. Genomics Institute, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York
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  • Harvey Checkoway PhD,

    1. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
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  • Haydeh Payami PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Genomics Institute, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York
    • Genomics Institute, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, PO Box 22002 Albany, NY 12201-2002
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Abstract

Inverse associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) with cigarette smoking, coffee drinking, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use have been reported individually, but their joint effects have not been examined. To quantify associations with PD for the individual, two-way and three-way combinations of these factors, a case–control association study with 1,186 PD patients and 928 controls was conducted. The study setting was the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding smoking, coffee, and NSAID consumption. Odds ratios were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Smoking, coffee, and over the counter NSAID use as individual factors exhibited significantly reduced risks of 20% to 30%. The two-way and three-way combinations were associated with risk reduction of 37% to 49%, and 62%, respectively. Smoking and coffee exhibited significant inverse risk trends with increasing cumulative exposures, suggesting dose–response relations. With respect to the combination of all three exposures, persons who were at the highest exposure strata for smoking and coffee and used NSAIDs had an estimated 87% reduction in risk (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.06–0.29). Whether this finding reflects true biologic protection needs to be investigated. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society

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