• executive function;
  • Parkinson's disease;
  • predisposing factor;
  • behavioral assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome (BADS);
  • Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the executive dysfunction (ExD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), which provides a wide-range assessment of ExD. The BADS and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were investigated in 63 nondemented PD patients who revealed scores of ≥24 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination based on the DSM-IV. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the predisposing factors to ExD, which was defined as <70 points on the age-controlled standardized score. The total score on the UPDRS was a significant independent predisposing factor to ExD. Among the various parts of the UPDRS, part II was the significant factor for ExD. The profile scores of all subtests on the BADS in patients with ExD were significantly lower than those of patients without ExD. All profile scores decreased with severity of PD, but the changes among these scores differed. ExD in nondemented PD predisposed to a greater severity of PD, particularly as regards the activity of daily living impairment. Nondemented PD revealed wide-range components of ExD. All components of ExD were impaired with severity of PD, but the patterns of each component exhibited variety. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society