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Fragile X syndrome associated with tic disorders

Authors

  • Susanne A. Schneider MD,

    1. Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
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  • Mary M. Robertson MD, DSc (Med) FRCPsych, FRCP FRCPCH,

    1. Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Neurology, St.George's Hospital and Medical School, Blackshaw Road, Tooting London, SW17 0QT, UK
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  • Renata Rizzo MD,

    1. Department of Paediatrics, University of Catania, Italy
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  • Jeremy Turk MD, FRCPsych, FRCPCH,

    1. Academic Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Division of Clinical Developmental Sciences, St. George's, University of London, London, United Kingdom
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  • Kailash P. Bhatia FRCP,

    1. Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
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  • Michael Orth MD, PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    2. Department of Neurology, Universitätsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    • Department of Neurology, Universitätsklinikum Eppendorf, Martinistr.20, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
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Abstract

Movement disorders other than late onset tremor-ataxia in association with fragile X syndrome, the most common identifiable cause of inherited mental retardation, seem to be rare. Here we describe five male patients from three unrelated families with fragile X syndrome that presented with motor and phonic tics. Clinically, 4 patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) while 1 patient would have been diagnosed with an adult onset tic disorder. However, in all patients onset of tics was considerably later than in typical GTS. Three patients had atypical tics and two patients reported waxing and waning of tic intensity over time. Four of the 5 patients showed clinical signs typical of fragile X syndrome, in particular dysmorphic features, learning difficulties and speech and language problems that required special treatment. All patients had co-morbidities common to both GTS and fragile X syndrome. We suggest considering fragile X syndrome in GTS complicated by co-morbidity with late onset of atypical tics, in particular when learning disability and dysmorphic features are present. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society

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