Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: A new cognitive scale specific for Parkinson's disease

Authors

  • Javier Pagonabarraga MD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Spain
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  • Jaime Kulisevsky MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Spain
    • Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Sant Antoni M, Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
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  • Gisela Llebaria MD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Spain
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  • Carmen García-Sánchez MD, PhD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Spain
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  • Berta Pascual-Sedano MD, PhD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Spain
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  • Alexandre Gironell MD, PhD

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Spain
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Abstract

Cognitive defects associated with cortical pathology may be a marker of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a need to improve the diagnostic criteria of PD dementia (PDD) and to clarify the cognitive impairment patterns associated with PD. Current neuropsychological batteries designed for PD are focused on fronto-subcortical deficits but are not sensitive for cortical dysfunction. We developed a new scale, the Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS), that was designed to cover the full spectrum of cognitive defects associated with PD. We prospectively studied 92 PD patients [30 cognitively intact (CogInt), 30 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 32 PDD] and 61 matched controls who completed the PD-CRS and neuropsychological tests assessing the cognitive domains included in the PD-CRS. Acceptability, construct validity, reliability, and the discriminative properties of the PD-CRS were examined. The PD-CRS included items assessing fronto-subcortical defects and items assessing cortical dysfunction. Construct validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of PD-CRS total scores showed an intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70. The PD-CRS showed an excellent test accuracy to diagnose PDD (sensitivity 94%, specificity 94%). The PD-CRS total scores and confrontation naming item scores-assessing “cortical” dysfunction—independently differentiated PDD from non-demented PD. Alternating verbal fluency and delayed verbal memory independently differentiated the MCI group from both controls and CogInt. The PD-CRS appeared to be a reliable and valid PD-specific battery that accurately diagnosed PDD and detected subtle fronto-subcortical deficits. Performance on the PD-CRS showed that PDD is characterized by the addition of cortical dysfunction upon a predominant and progressive fronto-subcortical impairment. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society

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