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Keywords:

  • Motor fluctuations;
  • non-motor;
  • levodopa;
  • Parkinson's disease

Abstract

Long term levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of problems. These include fluctuations in FD symptoms termed motor fluctuations, as well as non-motor symptoms, termed non-motor fluctuations. Here we review the phenomenology and methods of assessing these levodopa-related complications. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society