Levodopa-related motor complications—Phenomenology

Authors

  • Susan H. Fox MRCP (UK), PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Toronto Western Hospital, Movement Disorders Clinic, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, 399 Bathurst Street MCL7-412, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
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  • Anthony E. Lang MD, FRCPC

    1. Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital, Movement Disorders Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.

Abstract

Long term levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of problems. These include fluctuations in FD symptoms termed motor fluctuations, as well as non-motor symptoms, termed non-motor fluctuations. Here we review the phenomenology and methods of assessing these levodopa-related complications. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society

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