Olfactory pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson disease revisited

Authors

  • Alicja Lerner MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
    • Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
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  • Anto Bagic MD, MS

    1. Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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Abstract

Idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) is traditionally considered a movement disorder with hallmark lesions located in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). However, recent histopathological studies of some PD cases suggest the possibility of a multisystem disorder which progresses in a predictable sequence as described in Braak's staging criteria. The disease process starts in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmX) and anterior olfactory nucleus and bulb, and from there, spreads through the brainstem nuclei to ultimately reach the SNpc, which then presents as symptomatic PD. In this article, we would like to revisit the olfactory pathogenesis of PD based on Braak's staging system and review anatomical pathways supporting such a possibility. We also suggest some biomarkers for early stages of PD. Additionally, we present and discuss the possibility that a prion-like process underlies the neurodegenerative changes in PD. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society

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