• botulinum toxin;
  • cervical dystonia;
  • immunogenicity;
  • antigenicity;
  • neutralizing antibodies


To evaluate the immunogenicity of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA; BOTOX) in cervical dystonia (CD). Subjects diagnosed with CD for ≥1 year and previously naïve to BoNTs were treated with BoNTA in a prospective, open-label, multicenter study. Serum samples were analyzed for BoNTA neutralizing antibodies using the Mouse Protection Assay (MPA). Clinical resistance was assessed with a test injection of 20 U BoNTA placed unilaterally into the frontalis (Frontalis Antibody Test; FTAT) or corrugator muscle (Unilateral Brow Injection; UBI). Efficacy was assessed and adverse events were recorded. Of 326 subjects enrolled, 251 (77%) completed the study. Subjects received a median of 9 BoNTA treatments (mean dose per session ranged from 148.4 to 213.0 U over a mean of 2.5 years [range: 3.2 months–4.2 years]). Only 4 of 326 subjects (1.2%) tested positive for antibodies in the MPA; three of these subjects stopped responding clinically to BoNTA (of whom one also showed clinical resistance in the FTAT) and one continued to respond. Consistent improvements in the signs/symptoms of CD were noted. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate weakness, dysphagia, neck pain, and injection-site pain. The current formulation of BoNTA rarely causes neutralizing antibody formation in CD subjects treated ≤4 years. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society