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The use of smell identification tests in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Brazil


  • Potential conflict of interest: None reported.


Smell identification tests may be of routine clinical value in the differential diagnosis of PD but are subject to cultural variation and have not been systematically evaluated in the Brazilian population. We have applied culturally adapted translations of the University of Pennsylvania 40-item smell identification test (UPSIT-40) and the 16-item identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS-16) to nondemented Brazilian PD patients and controls. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the test scores was 0.76 (95% CI 0.70–0.81, n = 204, P < 0.001). To calculate reliability measures for each test we used the diagnosis (either PD or control) as outcome variable for separate logistic regression analyses using the score in the UPSIT-40 or the SS-16 as a covariate. The SS-16 specificity was 89.0% with a sensitivity of 81.1% (106 PD and 118 controls). The UPSIT-40 specificity was 83.5% and its sensitivity 82.1% (95 PD and 109 controls). Regression curves were used to associate an individual's smell test score with the probability of belonging to the PD, as opposed to the control group. Our data provide support for the use of the UPSIT-40 and SS-16 to help distinguish early PD from controls. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society