Prevalence and correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease without dementia

Authors

  • Jaime Kulisevsky MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
    • Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department. Sant Pau Hospital., Sant Antoni M. Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Javier Pagonabarraga MD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Berta Pascual-Sedano MD, PhD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Carmen García-Sánchez PhD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Alexandre Gironell MD, PhD,

    1. Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Sant Pau Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author

  • Potential conflict of interest: None reported.

  • Members of the Trapecio Group Study are listed as an Appendix.

Abstract

A cross-sectional study of the profile of psychiatric symptoms and their relationships to medications, executive performance, and excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) was conducted on 1351 consecutive Parkinson's disease patients without dementia (PD-ND). Ratings were: neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI); hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS); executive performance (semantic, phonemic, and alternating verbal fluencies); and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Eighty-seven percent of the subjects reported at least one psychiatric symptom. The most common were depression (70%), anxiety (69%), apathy (48%), and irritability (47%). Fifty percent of the patients had HADS-depression scores ranging from possible (8–10; 22%) to probable (≥11; 28%) depression. Executive impairment was found in 41% and EDS in 26% of subjects. All considered variables were significantly more common with longer duration and more severe disease. Only depression appeared to be influenced by type of medication, being less prevalent among patients treated with DAs. Five NPI clusters were identified among patients scoring ≥1 on the NPI (87.3%): patients exhibiting predominantly apathy (12.7%), psychosis (3%), depression (13%), anxiety (15.6%), and “low-total NPI” (43.2%). Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in nondemented PD patients suggesting that they are an integral part of PD from the beginning of the disease and appears more related to disease progression than to the type of antiparkinsonian medication. Apathy emerged as an independent construct in PD-ND, indicating the need to address specific therapeutical approaches targeted toward this particular symptom. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society

Ancillary